The Mute Consonants – sparśa
◊ The sparśa are 25 in numbers as shown above in Table 1. To create the isomorphism from external reality to discursive language as we speak, the first mute ‘k’ ( k ) to the last mute ‘m’ ( ma ) – the glottis to the labials are traced and the entire mouth is virtually ‘shaped’ in these varnas. They are divided into five classes of five each :-
kavarga ( kvaga- : k¸ K¸ ga¸ Ga¸ = ) these are kanthasth or guttural ;
cavarga ( cavaga- : ca¸ C¸ ja¸ Ja¸ Ha ) these are tālavya or palatal ;
tavarga ( Tvaga- : T¸ z¸ D¸ Z¸ Na ) these are mūrdhana or cerebral ;
tavarga ( tvaga- : t¸ qa¸ d¸ Qa¸ na ) these are dantasth or dental ;
pavarga ( pvaga- : p¸ f¸ ba¸ Ba¸ ma ) these are östh or labial ;
If we look at them column-wise then the last column of five are nasals or anunāsik. In each class the first two have a harsh tone and are considered purusa or male while the 3rd and the 4th are softer and hence called kömal. At the same time the 1st and 3rd use lesser breath therefore they are termed as alp-prāna while the 2nd and the 4th are aspirates, using more life-force and hence they are termed māhā-prāna.